Colin Huang, Shanghai’s secretive world wide web king

From a rundown office tower in downtown Shanghai, wedding day attire are bought to the US, wristwatches are shipped to France and inexpensive trainers are despatched to customers in the British isles.

Dozens of web-sites and applications function from the 23-flooring Greenland company building, where by personnel sit in places of work that are totally unmarked, aside from the terms “Self Confidence” pasted to their glass doors.

Just one male is at the rear of all these ventures, 40-12 months-outdated Colin Zheng Huang, the billionaire founder, chairman and controlling shareholder of 1 of this year’s major sensations, the on the internet purchasing app Pinduoduo, whose shares have risen by 261 per cent given that January.

But along with Pinduoduo, which is now value $170bn, Mr Huang has set up a wide community of other ecommerce and gaming groups in Shanghai together with a restricted-knit group of colleagues, creating him the city’s undisputed internet king.

Some of these ventures are additional well-known outdoors China than Pinduoduo. A person of the apps, Vova, is a single of Europe’s most well known on line procuring providers, ranking in the leading 10 searching apps in France and Italy this previous quarter, in accordance to Sensor Tower.

Top shopping apps downloaded in France and Italy

The hub of ecommerce and gaming enterprises at the Greenland creating offered early personnel for Pinduoduo, and aided the breakout business with its sales and internet marketing.

Pinduoduo previously explained to traders that Mr Huang established, or was related to, some of the organizations, but in data registered with Chinese regulators they were owned by his associates.

Regarded as baishoutao, or “white gloves”, it is not unheard of for rich Chinese to check with friends or kinfolk to hold their shares in corporations to lessen their personal risk and defend their holdings from general public scrutiny.

Mr Huang has only at times held shares in his possess identify in China. Even at Pinduoduo, he signed about all his shares in its Chinese organization forward of the company’s 2018 original community supplying to Chen Lei, Pinduoduo’s main executive, who he studied with at the College of Wisconsin-Madison.

Colin Huang was a university student in the US with Chen Lei, Pinduoduo’s chief government © Imgine China/Alamy

One particular apparent stand-in shareholder, a 69-year-old female from a rural area of inner China recognized for its Goji berries, held a 90 for each cent stake in various of the companies till the Financial Periods questioned about her identification.

Pinduoduo has advised traders in its Nasdaq-outlined shares small about the website of providers. Alternatively it phone calls Mr Huang a “serial entrepreneur” and says he established “Xinyoudi Studio” in 2011. No firm with that title has at any time existed, though was at the time registered.

Chinese media have described Mr Huang as mysterious. It is not even acknowledged if he is married. The secrecy extends to Pinduoduo, wherever personnel use nicknames and two former workers mentioned it was exceptional to know their colleagues’ authentic names. 

Pinduoduo did not reply to a record of issues for comment.

Unmarked offices inside the Greenland building
Unmarked places of work within the Greenland constructing in Shanghai, in which Pinduoduo staff use nicknames © Ryan McMorrow

Mr Huang was born in Hangzhou, the hometown of on the web purchasing huge Alibaba. Both of his mother and father ended up manufacturing unit employees and he researched computer system science at Zhejiang University before heading to the US in 2002.

He joined Google and worked at Google China just before striking out on his personal, in the pursuit of each “making money” and “making me a tiny bit cooler”.

Cashing in his Google inventory, he started out Ouku, a client electronics web site and marketed it for $2.2m in 2010. His subsequent venture, Leqee, was previously underneath way, with Mr Chen and an Ouku intern registering the firm with authorities in 2009 as its founding shareholders. Pinduoduo afterwards explained to venture capitalists that Mr Huang “successfully founded” Leqee in 2009, in accordance to paperwork noticed by the FT. 

Leqee served massive brand names run their retailers on China’s biggest net shopping platforms, Alibaba and It also became an informal keeping team for the succession of new companies set up in the Greenland setting up.

Two many years afterwards, the team set up another undertaking, Lebbay, which was yet again owned on paper by Mr Chen and the now former intern. Working with the expertise Mr Huang acquired at Google, Lebbay built a series of on line procuring web-sites that aimed to get to the top of the lookup rankings for their offerings.

“Building one particular site only usually takes a week,” explained a former supervisor, noting the websites’ funnelled orders into the same again finish process for fulfilment. Mr Chen had operate the operation, reporting to Mr Huang, the staff reported. 

An additional profitable foray started everyday living a few flooring previously mentioned Lebbay. Below the identify Shanghai Xunmeng, Mr Huang’s crew developed on line game titles this sort of as Joyspade Texas Holdem Poker, targeting south-east Asian gamblers, and Girls X Fight, where by gamers gather an army of girlfriends to combat for them. 

Mafia City, one of the hit games, on Xinyoudi's website
Mafia City, one of the hit games, on Xinyoudi’s internet site. Nowadays, the developers creating its code get the job done for a enterprise Ms Gu set up in 2018, Shanghai Youta (Yotta Video games). © Screenshot

Then Mr Huang landed on the notion that would come to be Pinduoduo. In 2015, he asked his group to create a “social ecommerce” venture. Named Pinhaohuo, shoppers got a superior price if they could persuade a good friend to get the very same products. The internet site began with selling fruit, and at one particular level Mr Huang redeployed 100 workforce from Leqee to assist out.

A several months later, Mr Huang’s gaming workforce produced a second application implementing the exact group-getting design to an on-line marketplace, the place any merchant could record their items. It was named Pinduoduo and 20 important gaming workforce shifted to concentrate on the venture, Mr Huang explained to neighborhood media.

“These had been two distinctive roads, Pinhaohuo was pushing to build warehouses and fulfilment, like a (akin to Amazon) for fresh new deliver, but the staff from the gaming corporation didn’t see it as viable,” explained Mr Huang.

Pinduoduo’s enterprise product rapidly won out and swallowed the Pinhaohuo staff. But the world-wide-web of organizations in the Greenland creating ended up tangled tightly collectively. Lebbay was employed to register Pinhaohuo’s social media accounts, which were being important revenue channels, and introduced in a quarter of the blended company’s gross sales in 2016. Leqee was shown as Pinhaohuo’s operator on its web site. Shanghai Xunmeng, the gaming arm, ran Pinduoduo.

When exterior traders ploughed $50m into Pinduoduo in 2016, the possession of the group of businesses began to change. Xunmeng’s 90 for each cent proprietor on paper, 69-12 months-aged Gu Yanping from rural Ningxia province, transferred her stake to the entity that American investors invest in into now. Pinduoduo later on explained in its prospectus that Xunmeng was “controlled by the Founder (Mr Huang) considering the fact that its establishment.”

Ms Gu immediately established up a second business for the spun-out gaming property. 1 early Pinduoduo investor acknowledged that the world-wide-web of organizations had been tied to Mr Huang. “The other organizations are just making a minimal cash, they never have any effect,” the human being mentioned. With Pinduoduo “he wishes to make a great corporation,” the investor stated. 

“Every corporation has its have personnel and has its have crew, he has to be dependable to them, he just cannot just shutter the companies,” the person extra. 

How the FT traced the ownership of the ecommerce apps

This previous year the gaming organization has loved income of $489m, in accordance to facts from Sensor Tower. Alongside one another with Pinduoduo, it has moved to a gleaming new tower known as the Shanghai Arch, where by employees putting on anime costumes and vibrant blue wigs to match the people in their video games, write code a handful of floors beneath Pinduoduo’s speedy-increasing team.

The other ecommerce ventures continue being in the Greenland building. But the strains involving the firms are still blurred.

Six latest and previous personnel at Vova and the other ecommerce web sites informed the FT that when they were being recruited by Lebbay or Leqee, their paychecks arrived from the enterprise Ms Gu set up in 2016 to take over the gaming assets becoming spun out of Pinduoduo. “It was always a thriller, they by no means advised us why,” mentioned Ice Chen, a former application developer for one of the web sites.

Immediately after the FT questioned two of the companies about Ms Gu’s id this summer, she transferred practically her full stake in both equally companies to a man, who has also established up an financial investment partnership for Pinduoduo this 12 months, business records clearly show.

Greenland building in downtown Shanghai
Greenland developing in downtown Shanghai © Ryan McMorrow

It was the most up-to-date of a raft of share transfers Mr Huang and his acquaintances have created, with most carried out in the spring of 2018 as Pinduoduo prepared for its Nasdaq listing. 

The most consequential share transfer arrived in Could 2018 when Mr Huang transferred bulk ownership of Pinduoduo’s key Chinese functioning entity, identified as a variable interest entity, to Mr Chen.

Other Chinese tech executives, these as Pony Ma of Tencent or Robin Li of Baidu, have retained restricted regulate of their onshore firms, which run their businesses and hold important licences. But Mr Huang holds no shares in Pinduoduo’s VIE. 

“Colin must truly belief Chen Lei or it’s a frightening problem, for both equally Colin and US traders,” mentioned Jesse Fried, a company governance pro at Harvard Regulation College.

Extra reporting by Nian Liu in Beijing and Wang Xueqiao in Shanghai. This post was amended to proper Robin Li’s name

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